Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO)
Nutrition and Learning in Early Childhood: The Cognitive Implications-Dr NGOZI Ulonnam
Nutrition is especially important during pregnancy and infancy, which are crucial periods for the formation of the brain and lay the foundation for the development of cognitive, motor, and socio-emotional skills throughout childhood and adulthood.
Human Milk Oligosaccharides and brain development: New Perspectives
Adequate nutrition is necessary for normal brain development. Nutrition is especially important during pregnancy and infancy, which are crucial periods for the formation of the brain, and lays the foundation for the development of cognitive, motor, and socio-emotional skills throughout childhood and adulthood. Human milk oligosaccharides are the 3rd largest component of breast milk and are significant for the development of the gut-brain-immune axis. HMOs –have prebiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti –adhesive, immune-modulation and serve as nutrients for the brain for brain development, neuronal transmission, and synaptogenesis.
Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) and Brain Development
The brain weighs 350-400 grams and contains 100 billion neurons at birth. After birth, billions of neurons get connected by synaptogenesis: 700,000 synapses/second are formed. 90% brain development by age 5 years and 90% of brain volume by 6 years. Rapid growth and development in infants and children need adequate amounts of nutrients. The first years of life are a rapid & dynamic period for brain maturation. Most brain processes during that period are focused on connecting the brain, e.g., myelination Many factors, including nutrition, influence brain growth and myelination. HMOs are prebiotics, and they promote growth of intestinal microbiota
Bioactive nutrition: Human milk and milk-derived oligosaccharides
HMO* and MOS promote a gut microbiome closer to breastfed infants including an increase in bifidobacteria. HMO* and MOS decrease the abundance of potentially and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the microbiome, respectively. HMO* significantly reduced illness (LRTI and bronchitis) and antibiotic use through 12 months of age. MOS enhances intestinal immunity and GI barrier integrity/permeability.
Everyone's talking about human milk oligosaccharides
The early-life gut microbiome is important for the development of immune competence in newborn infants. Mode of delivery, perinatal antibiotic use and diet are most influential to this end. Breastfeeding is associated with lower risk of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, and possibly lower risk of diabetes and obesity, while the effect on allergies is not so clear. This suggests that breast milk-specific components may contribute. Among them are the non-digestible human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), the third largest solid breast milk component that varies primarily due to the maternal genotype for the Secretor and Lewis genes and stage of lactation. Other milk oligosaccharides are also relevant here.